Open Collective
Open Collective
Earthstar × NLnet
Published on December 30, 2021 by Sam Gwilym

It's been a year and a half since I began contributing to the Earthstar project. The project's aim is to provide a toolbox for users who want to operate their own online utilities: their own personal file sync; a blog publishing system; graphical chatrooms; a bespoke social network.

Earthstar sits on a relatively unexplored band of the spectrum of new web technologies: ephemerality in place of permanence, privacy in place of discovery, trust in place of trustlessness, small where everything else is big.

All of this gets me excited. When you're donating your spare hours to a project that excites you, you naturally start asking yourself: how can I work on this full-time?

NLnet Foundation has been funding projects building towards an open, fairer web since 1997. They've funded projects like Manyverse, Briar, MNT Reform, PeerTube, and Wireguard to name just a few.

And now Earthstar can be added to that list!

This funding means I'll be able to work full-time on Earthstar for an extended period of time.

What will I be working on?

The planned work has been broken down into five milestones.


The first milestone will deliver a complete reworking of Earthstar that is nearing completion. This new version has support for resumable synchronisation (e.g. over intermittent connections), support for multiple JS runtimes (e.g. browsers, Node, Deno), a synchronous cache abstraction for pockets, and a channel-based API for subscribing to pocket events. The major remaining part is implementing synchronisation over a swappable transport (e.g. HTTP, WebSocket, BroadcastChannel).
  • Add RPC-based syncing to support protocol agnostic sync
  • Add a HTTP + Server Sent Events sync implementation
  • Add a WebSocket sync implementation
  • Add a BroadcastChannel sync implementation
  • Create a stop-gap pocket server implementation so that we can deploy test infrastructure
  • Create a stop-gap implementation of the IndexedDB pocket to save large amounts of data
  • Create a first edition of the website containing: an adequate landing page, concept glossary, core API documentation, and specification for the ES5 data format.

Collaborative knowledge publishing

The second milestone focuses on delivering the benefits of the new version of Earthstar (and its future additions within this project) via a CLI tool, as well as a compelling use case: collaborative knowledgebase editing and publishing. Users will be able to edit and view a knowledgebase as a simple directory of files on their filesystem, editable with their existing tools. Using the Earthstar CLI they will be able to sync these documents to their own pub servers, which will be able to serve a read-only version of this knowledgebase as a website.
  • Create a Earthstar CLI for generating and managing identities, as well as syncing commons
  • Add a method of syncing a commons to and from the filesystem
  • Create a server which serves hyperlinked documents from an Earthstar commons via HTTP + Gemini protocol
  • Add documentation for downloading and using the new CLI to the earthstar website
  • Add documentation for creating a collaborative knowledgebase to the earthstar website

Pocket servers

Earthstar promotes the use of small, user-operated ‘pocket servers’ for networks to propagate their data through. In order for this to be a viable approach, we need a pocket server that is trivial to deploy and configure. We also need ways for early adopters of this to support the general Earthstar ecosystem.
  • Create a new pocket server implementation with allowlist / blocklist for syncable spaces, data retention policies (e.g. hold trusted spaces’ data indefinitely, hold unknown spaces’ data for an hour)
  • Create a new SQLite Pocket implementation for data persistence.
  • Update the website with a tutorial for setting up a pocket server, and a tutorial for building a simple chatroom, and API docs for the SQLite pocket.

Restricting read / write access

Obtaining a space’s public key currently grants you read/write access to its contents. In this milestone, an optional private key required for write access will be added. This opens the door to being able to host a space’s data without being able to write to it. Additionally, helpers for encrypting and decrypting the contents of a document will be added.
  • Add private keys for spaces, as well as a special format for private space’s public addresses
  • Add utilities for writing and reading encrypted data to document contents (NB: document metadata will remain unencrypted),
  • Request an external security quickscan of the new document encryption
  • Update the website with the new ES6 data specification and any new APIs

Large blob support

Finally, we want to add support for large blobs to Earthstar. This would mean support for internally representing a document’s contents as Uint8array, and improved methods for storing this data in different pocket implementations, especially the IndexedDB pocket.
  • Add blob support to documents
  • Update the pocket implementation to efficiently store binary data
  • Create a good implementation of the IndexedDB pocket
  • Update the website with the new ES7 data specification and any new APIs
There's a lot to be done, and thankfully much of it is already underway. Wish me luck! I'll be sharing monthly development updates here, on Earthstar's Open Collective, and on Secure Scuttlebutt (@PEqxT8YRvrkf2fyjAgTl8pmdo8aR4KVsKLyh0b5JyOE=.ed25519)


This marks the end of a bumpy transition from commercial to public work for me. I want to make this the beginning of something lasting, rather than a flash in the pan, and I'm honoured that I can even try. What a way to end one year and begin another.

My thanks to:
  • NLnet for their support and funding
  • Erick Lavoie, who proofread and offered changes to my application
  • My dear wife Yuliya, who has always supported me
  • And Cinnamon, who created Earthstar, proofread applications, helped me plan the work, and who is just a great friend and collaborator to have.

Sam Gwilym